Toxic substances in hazardous household waste
Іщенко, В. А.
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Many countries have no waste separation and mixed household waste accumulated mostly in landfills could pose serious environmental risk if landfills do not fulfill the requirements. The risk becomes much higher with increasing of hazardous components quantities in household waste (having hazardous properties and containing toxic chemicals). These include batteries, fluorescent lamps, chlorine-containing plastics, aromatic compounds and many others. Some hazardous waste are toxic themselves (waste oils) and some are not dangerous but contain toxic chemicals which are able to release into the environment under specific conditions. The purpose of this paper is the detailed study on hazardous components in household waste and the analysis of chemicals constituting these components and posing a threat to the environment and human. The profound literature review is used for the assessment of different hazardous household waste. Also, original investigations are carried out to identify toxic chemicals in some hazardous household waste: the chemical composition and data of manufacturers of batteries, cleanings, personal care products and fluorescent lamps are analyzed. The main hazardous components of household waste are analyzed: paints and varnishes, batteries, mercury-containing waste, waste of electrical and electronic equipment, cleaning products, medical waste, residues of pesticides and fertilizers, personal hygiene products. Hazardous substances contained in such components are considered. On the basis of detailed literature analysis and own research, it was investigated they are in a very large quantities. Among the most widespread substances are heavy metals, aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as many other carcinogenic and aggressive organic and inorganic compounds. The analysis shows household waste consisting of large number of hazardous components (fluorescent lamps, batteries, detergent residues, etc.) containing many toxic substances, including heavy metals, aromatic hydrocarbons and many other aggressive, carcinogenic organic and inorganic compounds. If hazardous components are mixed with household waste, then the hazard level of household waste and the operating costs sharply increase.
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